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Agaricus sp.

 

Agaricus L. is a saprophytic mushroom that grows on humus soil, decaying litter, wood logs and manure piles. It grows best in moist and shady places and is commonly seen during rainy season[1].

This mushroom was collected from Mango Tree Garden, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai.

 

Morphology

 

Agaricus is a small to medium sized fruit body having 20–70 mm diameter cap which is not brightly colored. The cap is smooth or covered by minute squamules. The spore bearing gills are free, initially pinkish, becoming brown to dark brown to chocolate brown.  The stipe is thin to thick depending on the species, usually fleshy, up to 80 × 10 mm, smooth or covered by minute squamules. All the species of Agaricus have a partial veil which often forms a ring on the stem. The cup like volva at the base of the stipe is absent.

 

Culinary value

 

The genus Agaricus has comprising of the most edible and widely consumed species. Although edible, this species is easily confused with the deadly poisonous mushroom, the destroying angel, Amanita verna when in the 'button' stage[2].

Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach

The mushroom A. bisporus is a good source of high quality proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (mainly vitamin C, and vitamin B2, B3 and B5) minerals (iron, calcium, phosphorous, potassium, and selenium), and dietary fiber[3].  The immature fruitbody of the Agaricus bisporus is known as crimini and mature stage is is known as portobello mushroom.

 

Medicinal importance

 

  1. 1. Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange) Imbach: Ergosterol extracted from Agaricus bisporus showed inhibitory effect on breast cancer cell line. It has potent antiproliferative effects on human epithelial cancer cells, proved as an antineoplastic agent. It also possesses antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activity[4].
  2. 2. Agaricus blazei Murrill: It has anti-tumor, anti-mutagenic and bactericidal effects. It activates the immune system. Supplementation with extracts may improve insulin resistance in some persons with diabetes and help alleviate the damage of oxidative stress[5],[6].

 

Industrial importance

 

Tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus used for bioremediation of phenol-polluted waters. It was able to remove 90% of phenol demonstrating its potential in bioremediation process[7].

 

Unique features

 

Lack of information

 

Interesting facts

 

Several origins of Agaricus have been proposed. It possibly originates from ancient Sarmatia Europaea, where people Agari, promontory Agarum and a river Agarus were known (all located on the northern shore of Sea of Azov, probably, near modern Berdiansk in Ukraine)[8].

 

Commercial products:

 

For commercial products refer links

Mushroom powder from A. blazei

  1. http://www.superfoods-for-superhealth.com/images/agaricus-blazei-mushroom-products.jpg
  2. https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51dBLiQQEQL.jpg

Dietary supplement from A. blazei

https://www.luckyvitamin.com/images/Product/medium/51762.jpg?s=True

 

Review of patents:

 

  1. A new and unique variety of A. bisporus is described[9]. The inventors and original assignee of the invention were Richard Kerrigan and Mark Wach and the patent was granted by United States Patent Office.
  2. A method of culturing bisporus mycelium or spores in a liquid medium consisting of sugarcane extract is described[10]. The inventors were Young-Duk Kim and Yong-Hwi Kim and the original assignee was Cj Corp. The patent was granted by United States Patent Office.
  3. Cultivation method of blazei is described[11]. The inventor was Yong-Fang Fang and the original assignee were Yong-Fang Fang and Hsien-Chiu Lin. The patent was granted by United States Patent Office.

 

Review of publications:

 

  1. The volatile compounds produced by seven Agaricus species, two Volvariella, one Pleurotus and one Coprinus were used to differentiate between these species[12].
  2. Agaricus blazei related benefits were discussed which included anti cancer, anti infectious, anti inflammation, anta allergic properties.
  3. Truths and myths about A. blazei were discussed[13].
  4. A guide for production of A. bisporus was developed[14].

 

Links to more publications:

 

 

Classification:

Kingdom:

 Fungi

Phylum:

Basidiomycota

Class:

Agaricomycetes

Order:

Agaricales

Family:

Agaricaceae

Genus:

Agaricus

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related links:

 

 

                                

 

[1]http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/agaricus-habitat-structure-and-reproduction/24077

[2] http://www.arkive.org/field-mushroom/agaricus-campestris/

[3]Sharma S, Vaidya D( 2011). White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus): Composition, nutritive value, shelf-life extension and value addition. International Journal of Food and Fermentation Technology, 1(2): 185-199

[4] Dhamodharan G and Mirunalini S (2010) A Novel Medicinal Characterization of Agaricus Bisporus (White Button Mushroom). Pharmacologyonline, 2: 456-463

[5]http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/benefits-of-agaricus-blazei-murrill-mushroom/

[6] Biedron R, Tangen JM, Maresz K, Hetland G (2012) Agaricus blazei Murill - immunomodulatory properties and health benefits. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 2(11):428-447

[7] Kameda E, Langone MAP, Coelho MAZ (2006). Tyrosinase Extract from Agaricus bisporus Mushroom and its in Natura Tissue for Specific Phenol Removal. Journal Environmental Technology, 27(11): 1209-1215

[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agaricus

[9] https://www.google.com/patents/US20100218294

[10] https://www.google.com/patents/US20090235579

[11] https://www.google.ch/patents/US20070101642

[12] Keshri G, Challen M, Elliott T, Magan N (2003) Differentiation of Agaricus species and other homobasidiomycetes based on volatile production patterns using an electronic nose system. Mycological Research, 107(5): 609–613

[13] Dias ES, Abe C, Schwan RF (2004) Truths and myths about the mushroom Agaricus blazei. Scientla Agricola (Piracicaba, Braz.) 61(5): 545-549

[14] Maheshwari S (2013) A Guide for White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Production. Scientific Reports, 2: 668. doi:10.4172/scientificreports.668

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