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Boletus sp.

Boletus L. is a genus containing over 100 species[1].

The specimen was collected from Amboli.

Morphology:

Fruit body is very large. Pileus up to 250 mm diameter, plano-convex, becoming plane; surface yellow to greyish yellow, smooth, viscid; margin entire. Hymenophore poroid, pores large, angular, greenish yellow, becoming bluish on bruising. Stipe central, up to 100 × 50 mm, fleshy fibrous, thick, surface fibrillose striate, concolorous with the pileus. Ring absent. Volva absent.

Culinary value:

Many members of genus Boletus are edible and tasty. It is considered as an edible vegetable which is popularly eaten in North America. Boletus edulis is one of the best edible mushroom and highly prized[1],[2]. Other edible species are B. aereus and B. badiusBoletus erythropus is commonly consumed in China and Europe, B. satanas in Sicily after complex cooking process and B. subvelutipes in Japan[3].

Medicinal importance:

  1. Boletus badius synthesizes theanine which has been claimed to have mild psychoactive properties[4].
  2. Some species of the genus Boletus, such as pinicola, B. aereus, B. aestivalis, B. erythropus, and B. appendiculus, can also accumulate considerable amounts of selenium.

Industrial importance:

  1. Boletus edulis showed accumulation of heavy metals like Cu, Cd, Zn and Mn, while badius showed high concentration of lead. Boletus griseus and B. bicolor found to have higher potential to absorb Cu and Zn respectively. Thus, Boletus sp. are reported to have higher potentiality in the bioaccumulation of toxic heavy metals from the soil and can be used as bioremediating agent[5],[6].
  2. Boletus edulis with ammonia as a mordant produces chrome-mustard color which can be used to dye wool[7].

Unique features:

Usually the members of the family Boletaceae show mycorrhizal relationships with trees; however, B. parasiticus, grows from the Common Earth ball, Scleroderma citrinum[2].

Interesting facts:

Lack of information

Commercial products:

Lack of information

Review of patents:

  1. The new method of cultivation of mycorrhizal fungi especially Boletus edulis was developed. Method has included exchange of nutrients and metabolites across permeable membrane[8]. The inventor and applicant was Karl August Dr Ing Ernst and the patent was granted by European Patent Office.
  2. The flavoured Boletus was invented. It has a thick flavour of the broad-bean sauce and is salty, fresh, fragrant and spicy, as the broad-bean sauce and other materials are added in the seasoning[9]. The inventor and applicant was Shengqing Ma and the patent was granted by European Patent Office.
  3. The new technology for the cultivation of edulis was invented. The cultivation technology has used the city waste compost to cultivate B. edulis[10]. The inventor was Chongqing Baiguoxiang Agriculture DEV CO LTD and the patent was granted by European Patent Office.

Review of publications:

  1. The study has provided data on baseline concentrations, interrelationships and bioconcentration potential of 12 metallic elements by edulis collected from 11 spatially distant sites across Poland[11].
  2. The study has examined the evolutionary history of porcini (Boletus section Boletus: Boletaceae: Boletineae: Boletales) by using a global geographic sampling of most known species, new discoveries from little explored areas, and multiple genes[12].
  3. The study has characterized the Chinese porcini by morphological and molecular phylogenetic evidence. Total 15 species recognized, out of which nine were new species, namely botryoides, B. fagacicola, B. griseiceps, B. monilifer, B. sinoedulis, B. subviolaceofuscus, B. tylopilopsis, B. umbrinipileus and B. viscidiceps. Three previously described species, viz. B. bainiugan, B. meiweiniuganjun and B. shiyong, were revised, and B. meiweiniuganjun is treated as a synonym of B. bainiugan. Also, a key to the Chinese porcini mushrooms was provided[13].
  4. The study dealt with two closely related species, viz. roseogriseus and B. fuscoroseus. B. roseogriseus has described as a new species based on morphological and molecular characters. Both the species were described by molecular study (ITS and LSU rDNA sequences)[14].
  5. Boletus sharmae, is described as new species from Sikkim with supporting illustrations and compared with its allied Indian and extralimital taxa[15].

 Links to more publications:

  1. http://www.fungimag.com/fall-2010-articles/BoletesLR.pdf
  2. http://www.funnz.org.nz/sites/default/files/MycNotes11-BoletusEdulis_0.pdf
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4659685/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561069/
  5. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf60190a032
  6. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf035118o?journalCode=jafcau
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boletus_curtisii
  8. https://www.namyco.org/boletus_huronensis.php

Classification[16]:

Kingdom: Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Boletales

Family: Boletaceae

Genus: Boletus

Related links:

http://www.spicesmedicinalherbs.com/boletus-boletus-edulis.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boletus_subcaerulescens

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boletus_fibrillosus

https://nature.berkeley.edu/brunslab/pmb113/lectures/10oct07_lecture.pdf

http://www.mushroomexpert.com/boletes.html

http://mushroom-collecting.com/mushroombicolor.html

http://mushroom-collecting.com/mushroomking.html

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=Boletus&oq=Boletus&aqs=chrome..69i57j0j69i60j35i39l2j69i61.5405j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

 

 

 

 

 

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boletus

[2] http://www.wildfooduk.com/articles/boletus/

[3]https://books.google.co.in/books?id=zd5ODQAAQBAJ&pg=PA32&lpg=PA32&dq=medicinal+importance+of+genus+Boletus&source=bl&ots=3k1f0swbrx&sig=SS5N9Aqo8ElDGaC-k5ljhPXZqJQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj5vJ-NkcDWAhUITrwKHZGyBxMQ6AEIXTAG#v=onepage&q=medicinal%20importance%20of%20genus%20Boletus&f=false

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicinal_fungi#cite_note-theanine7-32

[5] http://serialsjournals.com/serialjournalmanager/pdf/1332228177.pdf

[6] https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2015/165412/

[7] http://mushroom-collecting.com/mushroomdyeing.html

[8] https://www.google.com/patents/DE2900455A1?cl=en

[9] https://www.google.com/patents/CN102697031A?cl=en

[10] https://www.google.com/patents/CN104718975A?cl=en

[11] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03601234.2011.540528

[12] http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.434.7338&rep=rep1&type=pdf

[13]https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277915856_Porcini_mushrooms_Boletus_sect_Boletus_from_China

[14] http://www.czechmycology.org/_cmo/CM66101.pdf

[15] http://www.cibtech.org/J-Plant-Sciences/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-3-No-1/JPS-03-007-%20KANAD-%20BOLETUS-%20SIKKIM.pdf

[16] http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=17175

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