Calocybe indica Purkay. & Chandra, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 62(2): 415: 1974


The species C. indica is usually found growing on humus rich soil, in agricultural fields or along the roadsides in tropical and subtropical parts of India. They are found between May and August, which normally coincides with sufficient showers after a prolonged dry period. They are saprophytic and sometimes ectomycorrhizal with Cocos nucifera, Borassus flabellifer, Tamarindus indicus, and Peltophorum ferruginum1.  They grow in soil as solitarily or scattered or connate. The specimen was collected from Mango Garden, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai. 




The mushroom is milky white to pale yellowish white in color.  Cap is 40-70 mm in diameter, broadly convex, becoming flat when grows; surface initially white to yellowish white, becoming greyish to greyish orange, smooth, glabrous; margin entire. Gills sinuate to narrowly adnate, white, crowded with numerous lamellulae. Stipe 45-95 × 10-21 mm, fleshy, often sinuate, expanding towards base; surface smooth. Spore print is white. 


Culinary value:


The species is edible. It is rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, carbohydrates, vitamins and essential amino acids and low in fats. It is used as the food supplement around the world as it is rich source of thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, and ascorbic acid. It is the third commercially grown mushroom in India after button and oyster mushrooms2.


Medicinal importance:


The administration of C. indica decoctions maintains the normal concentration of sugar in blood and helps in treating diabetes3, 4, 5.


Industrial importance:


Calocybe indica is studied for its effect in decolorization of textile industry effluents and proved to be a promising potential for effluent decolourization and remediation. Thus it can help in improving the quality of waste water released into streams and rivers. This was not much explored option before; however, it can be now used for bioremediation6.



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  1. A critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of C. indica have been outlined5.
  2. The study involved in cultivation of C. indica in Konkan region of Maharashtra using different substrates viz. paddy straw, horse gram waste, wild grass (Themeda quadrivolvis), bamboo leaves and different casing materials such as vermicompost, sand + soil (1:1 v/v), dried biogas spent slurry and combination of sand +soil +dried biogas spent slurry (1:1:1 v/v) were checked for their suitability7.
  3. The study was conducted to find out the efficacy of different substrates such as wheat straw, soybean straw, coconut coir pith, cotton waste and sugarcane baggase for the cultivation of Calocybe indica8.
  4. The study was undertaken to assess the effect of nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers and different substrates for improvement of casing quality and fruit body yield in milky mushroom C. indica. Also, the wheat and soybean straws and their mixture were evaluated for optimization of fruit body yield of milky mushroom9.
  5. The investigations was undertaken to determine the effect of casing layer thickness in the growth and yield of C. indica10.



Links to more publications:
























Related links:






1.Subbiah KA, Balan V (2015) Comprehensive review of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C), Mycobiology 43(3): 184-194


3.Krishnakumari S, Rajeswari P, Kathiravan S (2013) Ameliorative effect of Calocybe indica, a tropical Indian edible mushroom on hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering 7 (7)                                                        

4.Mirunalini S, Dhamodharan G, Deepalakshmi K (2012) Antioxidant potential and current cultivation aspects of an edible milky mushroom-Calocybe indica. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 4 (1): 137-143

5.Subbiah AK, Balan V (2015) Comprehensive review of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C), Mycobiology 43(3): 184-194

6. Kaur L, Sahota S, Bhatia A, Khajuria R (2016) Decolourization of textile industry dyes by Calocybe indica and Pleurotus florida mycelium. Journal of Environment and Biotechnology Research 4(1): 1-6

7.Navathe S, Borkar PG, Kadam JJ (2014) Cultivation of Calocybe indica (P & C) in Konkan Region of Maharashtra, India. World Journal of Agricultural Research 2(4): 187-191

8.Gitte V, John P, Kotgire G (2014) Selection of different substrates for the cultivation of milky mushroom (Calocybe indica P& C). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 13 (2): 434-436

9.Jadhav AC, Shinde DB, Nadre SB and Deore DS (2014) Quality improvement of casing material and yield in milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) by using biofertilizers and different substrates. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products (ICMBMP8)

10.Subramanian K, Shanmugasundaram K (2015) Optimization of casing process for enhanced bioefficiency of Calocybe indica, an indigenous tropical edible mushroom. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research Research 6 (2): 2594-2598


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