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Clitocybe sp.

 

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude is a genus of primarily saprotrophic mushroom decomposing forest ground litter[1].

The specimen was collected from Tungareshwar wildlife sanctuary.

 

Morphology:

 

Pileus up to 90 mm diam., deeply infundibuliform; surface greyish orange to greyish brown, smooth, margin uplifted. Lamellae decurrent, pale orange, crowded with numerous lamellulae, lamellae broad, up to 5 mm thick, eroded. Stipe up to 60 × 8 mm, cylindric, equal, slightly flattened towards base; surface smooth concolorous with the gills, becoming brown to reddish brown, fleshy fibrous, fistulose. Annulus and volva absent.

Culinary value:

A few species are considered to be edible; many others are poisonous, containing the toxin muscarine[1].

Medicinal importance:

  1. Species of the genus Clitocybe, including C. nebularis demonstrated antitumor, immunomodulatory, antioxidative properties, antimicrobial activities against various bacteria and fungi, as well as their potential use in therapy for alcoholism and as psychotropic agents[2].
  2. Data demonstrated that water extract of C. nuda can augment dendritic cells maturation in an in vitro culture system and contains adjuvant activity for DNA vaccines and therapeutic antitumor potential in a tumor-bearing mouse model[3].

Industrial importance:

Lack of information

Unique features:

Lack of information

Interesting facts:

Lack of information

Commercial products:

Lack of information

Review of patents:

  1. The method of production of alkaloids by the culture of the mycelia of fungi in nutrient media and particularly to the production of ergot and similar oxytocic alkaloids by cultivation of the mycelium of the fungus C. subilludens was invented[4]. The inventors were Perry A Foote, Werner M Lauter, Ross M Baxter and original assignee was Research Corp. The patent was granted by United States Patent Office.
  2. A planting method for a C. maxima was invented. It mainly comprises: 1) growing temperature, 2) humidity, 3) component proportion of nutrient medium and 4) process flow. This method is also applicable for large scale production[5]. The inventor and applicant was Chao Wang and the patent was granted by European Patent Office.
  3. A method for preparing big Clitocybe stem dietary fiber tablets by direct whole powder compression technique was invented. These tablets are rich in nutrients, easy for digestion and absorption and can meet the modern consumer’s requirements[6]. The inventor of this technology were Chen Junchen et al. and applicant was Institute of Agricultural Engineering Technology, Fujian academy of agricultural sciences. The patent was granted by European Patent Office.

Review of publications:

  1. Diagnostic characters of Clitocybe were discussed in the study and three new nomenclatural combinations were made[7].
  2. The study described a new species viz. Clitocybe puberula and erected a new section to accommodate it[8].
  3. New species, new combinations and new records of New Zealand agaric fungi were introduced along with diagnostic descriptions, phylogenetic position and additional notes which included Clitocybe brunneocaperata[9].
  4. Study presented a case of a patient who ingested Clitocybe mushrooms and developed a severe cholinergic toxidrome and died[10].
  5. The chemical studies and bioassays were performed in a sample of Clitocybe dealbata for the presence of muscarine. Results indicated the absence of other muscarine-like substances or muscarine potentiators. However, evidence was found for the presence of muscarine in herbarium samples of C. illudens, C. cerussata, C. dealbata, and C. rivulosa.

Links to more publications:

https://www.mssf.org/mycena-news/pdf/1303mn.pdf

http://file.scirp.org/pdf/NR_2013061117004397.pdf

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280083728_New_Records_of_Clitocybe_Species_from_Jammu_and_Kashmir_India

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10267-003-0091-6

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040403900942515

Classification[11]:

Kingdom: Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Tricholomataceae

Genus: Clitocybe

Related links:

http://www.mushroomthejournal.com/greatlakesdata/Taxa/ClitoGenus34.html

http://www.first-nature.com/fungi/clitocybe-geotropa.php

http://www.mushroomexpert.com/clitocyboid.html

http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/keys/Clitocybe_key.pdf

http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/Names.asp?strGenus=Clitocybe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clitocybe

[2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28008809/

[3] https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/761454/

[4] https://www.google.ch/patents/US2640007

[5] https://www.google.com/patents/CN102450161A?cl=en

[6] http://www.google.tm/patents/CN103598597B?cl=en

[7] http://www.annbot.net/PDF/anbf40/anbf40-213.pdf

[8] http://www.zobodat.at/stable/pdf/Sydowia_36_0173-0175.pdf

[9] http://www.mycosphere.org/pdf/Mycosphere_5_2_2.pdf

[10] https://www.omicsonline.org/peer-reviewed/death-following-ingestion-of-clitocybe-species-mushroom-76116.html

[11]http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=17328

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