Laccaria Berk. & Broome

 

The species of Laccaria are mycorrhizal fungi found to be distributed in temperate and tropical regions[1],[2]. It is observed that few species of Laccaria take place in ecological succession and may serve as pioneers in disturbed ground or de-forested areas and eventually leads to a "mature" ecosystem1. 

The specimen was collected from Amboli.

 

Morphology:

 

Pileus up to 25 mm diam., convex, becoming plano-convex to plane; shallowly, narrowly depressed at the disc; surface orange brown to reddish brown, becoming paler, smooth. Gills adnexed to adnate, broad, up to 4 mm wide, pinkish. Stipe up to 55 × 3 mm, cylindrical, tubular, slender, solid, becoming fistulose; surface concolorous with the pileus, smooth. Annulus absent. Volva absent.

Culinary value:

The species of Lacaria are edible and could be added to soups or stews[3].

Medicinal importance:

Lack of information

Industrial importance:

The experiments were conducted where the laccase gene from Laccaria bicolor was modified and the properties of the recombinant laccase and its ability to degrade synthetic dyes were studied. The laccase obtained was shown to decolorize the synthetic dyes, malachite green, crystal violet and orange G, with ABTS as a mediator. The results indicated the usefulness of laccase obtained to treat industrial effluents containing artificial dyes[4].

Unique features:

 

Interesting facts:

Lack of information

Commercial products:

Lack of information

Review of patents:

  1. The agricultural compositions and methods of using these compositions to increase plant growth, pathogen resistance and drought tolerance were invented. The compositions comprises mixtures of Laccaria bicolor and Piriformispora indica, along with bacterial strains of Pseudomonas[5]. The inventors were Jessy L. Labbe et al. and the applicant was Ut-Battelle, Llc. The patent was granted by European Patent Office.

Links for more patents:

https://www.google.co.in/patents/EP0521758A1?cl=en

Review of publications:

  1. The study reported the genome sequence of Laccaria bicolor and highlighted gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. The genome assembly was 65-megabase containing ~20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. The availability of this genome provides an opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the interaction between symbionts and plants within their ecosystem which is required in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are fundamental to sustainable plant productivity[6].
  2. Five new species in the genus Laccaria, amethysteo-occidentalis, L. nobilis, L. oblongospora, L. trichodermophora, and L. vinaceo-brunnea were described and discussed from North America based on macro- and micromorphological characters of fruiting bodies along with cultural characters acquired through somatic culture mat analysis of isolates obtained via tissue culture.. [7].
  3. Four species and two varieties of Laccaria L. amethystea, L. laccata var. pallidifolia, L. laccata var. pruinosipes, L. olivaceogrisea and L. pumila were recorded from north-western states of India. Among them L. olivaceogrisea and L. laccata var. pruinosipes were described as new[8].
  4. A model ectomycorrhizal genus Laccaria was studied systematically using herbarium material and field collections from over 30 countries. For this study a four-gene (nrITS, 28S, RPB2, EF1a) nucleotide sequence dataset comprising of 232 Laccaria specimens were analysed. The results identified 116 Laccaria molecular species[9].
  5. The study identified gene networks regulating lateral root development during the early signal exchanges between poplar and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor with a focus on Auxin transport and signalling pathways[10].

 

Links to more publications:

http://www.pnas.org/content/111/22/8299.full.pdf

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1990.tb00529.x/pdf

http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/plantphysiol/169/1/890.full.pdf

https://watermark.silverchair.com/api/watermark?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAeMwggHfBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggHQMIIBzAIBADCCAcUGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMbLU7o7EDDxXD3I77AgEQgIIBls78tcOyYGyd4-x2s_5SGBnYap1m04G1c5Ci1cL-hNuaPzohT2ZU_996Ug6utKE50E0TrWb0SbKOva2H261BG4UPmXSqjDbANnSrDM1dJ1BCpggzOIkzT6MBz0-mkHASAYufJb6toeiMAimYx81XCHc6Y1a9VC-RM2OJe5SX_jepSGqZJb2S7ufZ7TXw_TJf418e_Ak3MqxLzy8SMsnEQewDiqjYUE50Ks6P4omvfz96IT6W74qzwBAm_Lyb8t0LJkRY8ZzQ51Buw7HUpz_P0Sd_x9LwxZOjPt4AOKidYppuuhmzx_ZpXSsQpsHNysSCxhFRMWLVgtdolmpAC7vs4RUbDy7XmegXdOwwvNQvSLdKmn3aI6Py3uX9llEhyAHKMjEvI2nq-chdW9mxXVqcDxqFO9x_SuwY3_WzXnmttFuP8g_Z7NSDbYQ0dMiPvFbtYIQ9bioWlo5cTPiMZimdpK7jjEYW9HWEg3O3KWu0a8Cv4hzpWeH3gnu6DZj7fU7qYSsTv-0DOzlEyQ62xKzgiBngreQ6gCs

http://aem.asm.org/content/75/7/1979.full

Classification2:

Kingdom: Fungi

Division: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Hydnangiaceae

Genus: Laccaria

Related links:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laccaria_amethystina

http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/aug2010.html

https://www.fieldmuseum.org/mushroom-genus-laccaria-north-america

http://www.first-nature.com/fungi/laccaria-laccata.php

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laccaria_laccata

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laccaria_ochropurpurea

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laccaria_bicolor

http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/Names.asp?strGenus=Laccaria

 

[1] http://www.mushroomexpert.com/laccaria.html

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laccaria

[3] http://foragerchef.com/purple-laccaria-mushrooms/

[4] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13102818.2015.1104261?scroll=top&needAccess=true

[5] http://www.google.ch/patents/WO2017075023A1?cl=en

[6] https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7183/full/nature06556.html

[7] http://www.mykoweb.com/articles/PDF/New%20North%20American%20species%20of%20Laccaria.pdf

[8] http://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Sydowia_39_0224-0229.pdf

[9] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.14270/pdf

[10] http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/plantphysiol/151/4/1991.full.pdf

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