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Oudemansiella radicata (Relhan) Singer

 

(Synonym: Xerula radicata)

It is commonly called as rooting shank, found close to deciduous trees, especially beech, attached to roots or underground wood. It is found to be distributed single or sometimes in small groups[1]. The specimen was collected from Kanakeshwar, near Alibag.

 

Morphology:

 

The diameter of the cap is up to 80 mm; broadly convex, becoming flat. Cap is brown with brilliant white gills. It is smooth and slimy when young, becomes wrinkled with age or in dry conditions. Stem is centrally placed, approximately 200 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter, narrowing at the top, white at apex while brownish grey at the base. The stem elongates into a false root and hence called as rooting shank1.

 

Culinary value:

 

Edible and considered as a mushroom with good palatability[2],[3],[4]

 

Medicinal importance:

 

Oudmansiella radicata produces bioactive compounds such as exopolysaccharide and oudenone. Exopolysaccharide is reported to possess immunologically stimulating and anti-cancer properties[5]  and oudenone is useful for treatment of hypertensive diseases[6].

 

Industrial importance:

 

  1. 1.Oudemansiella radicata fruiting body has the tolerance towards lead accumulation. It has the detoxification potential as well as potential for bioaccumulation of heavy metal in polluted farmland[7].
  2. 2.The metal tolerance and detoxification strategy of radicata was studied. The results concluded that the species might have the potential to be used as bio-accumulator to deal with Cu exposure in the Cu-contaminated farmland soil[8].
  3. 3.Oudemansiella radicata produces laccase and cellulase enzymes using agro wastes under solid-state and submerged conditions. Thus, it can be used extensively in production of industrially important cellulase and laccase enzymes. However, further studies are required for optimization of large scale production[9].

 

Unique features:

 

Lack of information

 

Interesting facts:

 

Lack of information

 

Commercial products:

 

Lack of information

 

Review of patents:

 

  1. 1.Oudemansiella radicata mycellium polysaccharides are added as a feed to livestock. By doing so they increased the appetite and growth was promoted. Also, immunity and body disease resistance and meat of livestock was found to be improved, and quality and quantity of poultry eggs was also increased[10].
  2. 2.Human liver cancer cell, breast cancer cell and a pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell were processed by radicata protein extract for 72 hours. The tumor cell proliferation inhibition ratio was found to be increased along with time extension and increase in the concentration[11].
  3. 3.Because of industrialization and urbanization, soil contains heavy metalslike cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), Nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and causes pollution. Mushroom has a strong tolerance to heavy metals and enrichment capability, mushroom mycelium floating in the air directly absorb or accumulate heavy metals. The current invention relates to process of repairing heavy metal polluted soil with radicata and Tricholoma lobynsis. The patent is granted by European Patent Office[12].

 

Review of publications:

 

  1. 1.Effects of nutritional factors on production of a bioactive compound, exopolysaccharide of radicata were studied by a process of submerged cultivation[13].
  2. 2.The effects of siderophores on mycelial growth, Cd and Pb accumulation, lipid peroxidation, protein content and antioxidant enzyme in Oudemansiella radicata were investigated. The results suggested that these microbial siderophores can reduce the toxicity of metals and reduce heavy metals-inducing oxidative stress[14].
  3. 3.The fatty acids in Oudemansiella radicata and few other species were obtained by a Soxtec system extracted with chloroform/methanol (2:1) and derivation of their methyl ester forms[15].
  4. 4.Taxonomic structure of the genus Oudemansiella was studied[16].

 

Classification[17]:

 

Kingdom:

Fungi

Division:

Basidiomycota

Class:

Agaricomycetes

Order:

Agaricales

Family:

Physalacriaceae

Genus:

Oudemansiella

Species:

radicata

 

 

 

Related links:

 

1.       http://www.rogersmushrooms.com/gallery/DisplayBlock~bid~6556.asp

2.       http://eol.org/pages/6696796/names

3.       http://unicornbags.com/cultivation/oura.shtml

4.       http://www.silysavg.com/naturespickings/mushroomreport/rooted_oudemansiella.html

5.       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerula_radicata

6.       http://www.first-nature.com/fungi/xerula-radicata.php

http://www.first-nature.com/fungi/xerula-radicata.php

 
   
   
   
   
   

 

 

[1] https://fungimap.org.au/index.php/fduonline-home/131/294/agarics/P-oudemansiella-radicata

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerula_radicata

[3]http://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ON/article/viewFile/329/321

[4]https://books.google.co.in/books?id=lW2z73gIvM8C&pg=PA83&lpg=PA83&dq=edible+species+of+Oudemansiella&source=bl&ots=R-

[5] Hamao U, Osamn T, Takenchi T (1974) Hypotensive agent, oudenone, its salts and process for production and preparation thereof. US patent 3,835,170

[6] Tsantrizos YS, Zhou F (1995) Biosynthesis of the hypotensive metabolite oudenone by Oudemansiella radicata. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 60: 6922–6930.

[7] Zhang W, Hu Y, Cao Y, Huang F, Xu H (2012) Tolerance of lead by the fruiting body of Oudemansiella radicata. Chemosphere, 88 (4): 467–475

[8] Jiang J, Qin C, Shu X, Chen R, Song H, Li Q, Xu H (2015) Effects of copper on induction of thiol-compounds and antioxidant enzymes by the fruiting body of Oudemansiella radicata. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 111: 60–65

[9]https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwi-3sKJsa7VAhUJqY8KHYpEAnsQFggqMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fresplantbiol.com%2Findex.php%2Frib%2Farticle%2Fview%2F5&usg=AFQjCNE8lKKk3kaPIHt1q17HiyFWG7OlPQ

[10] http://www.google.co.nz/patents/CN102687801A?cl=en

[11] http://www.google.sk/patents/CN103285047A?hl=sk&cl=en

[12] http://www.google.mk/patents/CN100534652C?cl=en

[13] Zou X (2005) Optimization of nutritional factors for exopolysaccharide production by submerged cultivation of the medicinal mushroom Oudemansiella radicata. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 21: 1267–1271

[14] Cao Y-R, Zhang X-Y, Deng J-Y, Zhao Q-Q, Xu H (2012) Lead and cadmium-induced oxidative stress impacting mycelial growth of Oudemansiella radicata in liquid medium alleviated by microbial siderophores. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 28 (4): 1727–1737

[15] Yilmaz N, Solmaz M, Türkekul I, Elmastaş M (2005) Fatty acid composition in some wild edible mushrooms growing in the middle Black Sea region of Turkey. Food Chemistry, 99 (1): 168-174 

[16] http://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Sydowia_32_0074-0080.pdf

[17] http://www.mycobank.org/Biolomics.aspx?Table=Mycobank&MycoBankNr_=254292

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