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Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.P. Kumm.

 

Widely distributed in most of the temperate and subtropical forests; saprobic; grows in shelf-like clusters usually on dead logs and living trees (primarily hardwoods). As the tree dies oyster mushroom will start growing on it and actually helps to decompose the wood and thus returns important elements and minerals to ecosystem. It causes a white rot. Oyster mushroom is one of the few known carnivorous mushrooms kill nematodes and bacteria with impunity[1], [2].

 

Morphology:

 

Cap is 4-15 cm; convex, flat or somewhat depressed, kidney-shaped to fan-shaped, or nearly circular if growing on the tops of logs; young and fresh fruiting bodies, somewhat greasy and smooth with incurved margin; pale brown to dark brown in color. Flesh is white, firm and varies in thickness. Gills are closely spaced; white or with a gray tinge, at maturity become yellowish. Stem is rudimentary and lateral or absent when the mushroom is growing from the side of a tree. However, it develops thick and dry stem and slightly hairy near the base when grows on the top of branches2.

 

Culinary value:

 

Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible and delicious mushroom. It is are frequently used in Japanese, Korean and Chinese cooking. It is mild in taste and odor and similar to anise. It is a good source of protein, potassium, fiber and carbohydrates and also many vitamins and minerals such as calcium, niacin, sodium, and vitamins B5 and D. They taste best when young, as it ages, flesh becomes tough and tastes unpleasant and acrid flavor. Though it is edible, few people are allergic to it. It contains small amount of arabitol and sugar alcohol which causes gastrointestinal problems[3].

 

Medicinal importance:

 

  1. 1.Pleurotus ostreatus is mentioned to have anticancer, antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolic, anti-arthritic and eye health. Though there are limited direct human intervention trials, in vitro and in vivo animal studies describe a possible range of health benefits[4].
  2. 2.Lovastatin, a naturally produced compound by ostreatus is well-documented for its activity of reducing blood cholesterol. Ubiquitin proteins present in these mushrooms have antiviral and even anti-HIV properties. Studies have also shown the effect of oyster mushroom rich diets to inhibit tumor growth and protect from chemicals that induce colon cancer3.

 

Industrial importance:

 

  1. 1.Laccase is receiving importance because of multi industrial applications and its environmental benefits. It is used in environmental bioremediation, food and biochemical industries, health and medical sectors. Pleurotus ostreatus is used for cost effective production of this enzyme and various parameters were studied to standardize the procedure using solid state fermentation. The results obtained here can be used as a baseline for large scale production of laccase[5].
  2. 2.The research has proved the ability of ostreatus to decolorize and degrade azo dye, Synazol Red. And hence it is a promising candidate for color removal from textile wastewater containing azo dyes[6].

 

Unique features:

 

Lack of information

 

Interesting facts:

 

  1. 1.Pleurotus ostreatus adapts to a wide range of substrate material3.
  2. 2.Pleurotus ostreatus is proposed as an insulating material and substitute for polystyrene packing material using the mycelium along with the growing substrate[7].

 

Commercial products:

 

For products please check:

  1. 1.https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/dried-oyster-mushroom-powder-13679434691.html
  2. 2.https://www.indigo-herbs.co.uk/shop/buy/oyster-mushroom-powder

 

Review of patents:

 

  1. 1.Pleurotus ostreatus production method was developed by using biogas residue. It is a convenient, simple and low cost method[8].
  2. 2.Pleurotus ostreatus culture method was developed. It was prepared from multiple waste materials so that pollution can be reduced. At the same time cellulose, lignin, amino acid and trace elements required for growth and development can also be provided. Furthermore, the culture medium contains multiple traditional Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients, so that the cultured ostreatus has a healthy effect[9].
  3. 3.Pleurotus ostreatus culture medium is prepared from Aquilaria sinensis wood dust. Multiple wastes are used as the main raw materials along with the chili powder which has the bactericidal effect and can enhance the disease prevention and resisting capacity of the edible fungus, so that ostreatus has favorable growth vigor and high yield[10].

 

Review of publications:

 

  1. 1.Use of agro industrial wastes to grow ostreatus which in turn lead to increased production of laccase, MnP, Mip and ß-glucosidase. Thus, the use of agricultural wastes can help to solve environmental problems caused by inadequate discharge in the nature[11].
  2. 2.Pleurotus ostreatus was tested for cellulase production by solid state fermentation and considered as efficient source for cellulase. Further research may help in eco-friendly production of bioethanol[12].
  3. 3.The study demonstrated the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)-removal capacity of spent oyster mushroom substrate in highly contaminated soil[13].
  4. 4.The antioxidative and antimicrobial properties of ostreatus were evaluated when they were cultivated on banana agro wastes. The study concluded that banana agro waste could be a significant economic source for the cultivation[14].

 

Classification1:

 

Kingdom:

Fungi

Division:

Basidiomycota

Class:

Agaricomycetes

Order:

Agaricales

Family:

Pleurotaceae

Genus:

Pleurotus

Species:

 ostreatus

 

Related links:

 

  1. 1.http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/species/Pleurotus_ostreatus.html
  2. 2.http://www.diethealthclub.com/health-food/oyster-mushrooms.html

 

 

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleurotus_ostreatus

[2] Kuo, M (2005, February). Pleurotus ostreatus: The oyster mushroom. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/pleurotus_ostreatus.html

[3] http://eol.org/pages/1028614/details

[4] Krishnamoorthy D, Sankaran M (2014) Pleurotus ostreatus: an oyster mushroom with nutritional and medicinal properties, Journal of Biochemical Technology, 5(2):718-726

[5] Kumari J, Negi S (2014) Development of bioprocess for the production of laccase by Pleurotus ostreatus MTCC 1802 using evolutionary optimization technique. Indian journal of experimental biology, 52: 1106-1111

[6] Hashmi S, Quazi S (2013) Potential role of Pleurotus ostreatus in the decolorization and detoxification of the dye Synozol red. International journal of current microbiology and applied sciences, 2(6): 106-112

[7] Rodriguez N. "Insulation Made From Mushrooms?" This Old House Magazine, Time Inc (https://www.thisoldhouse.com/ideas/insulation-made-mushrooms)

[8] http://documents.allpatents.com/l/32314809/CN101531545A

[9] http://documents.allpatents.com/l/79613529/CN104193479A

 

[10] http://documents.allpatents.com/l/24299198/CN104109031A

[11] Morais H, Forgács E, Cserháti T (2005) Enzyme production of the edible mushroom Pleorotus ostreatus in shaken cultures completed with agro-industrial wastes. Engineering in Life Sciences, 5 (2)

[12] Khalil MI, Hoque MM, Basunia MA, Nadia ALAM, Khan MA (2011) Production of cellulase by Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju in solid state fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 35: 333-341

[13] Eggen T, Sasek V (2002) Use of edible and medicinal oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus (jacq.: fr.) kumm.] spent compost in remediation of chemically polluted soils. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 4(3):255-261

[14] Kunjadia PD, Nagee A, Pandya PY, Mukhopadhyaya PN, Sanghvi GV, Dave GS (2014) Medicinal and antimicrobial role of the oyster culinary-medicinal mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (higher Basidiomycetes) cultivated on banana agrowastes in India. International journal of medicinal mushrooms, 16(3):227-38

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