Russula Pers.

The species of Russula are ectomycorrhizal fungi having symbiotic association with roots of higher plants. Most of the mushrooms have bright colored caps with white stipes. Some species are associated with one or more hosts in a range of habitats while others are specific to either host or habitat or both[1].

The specimens were collected from Dapoli.

Morphology:

Pileus up to 60 mm diam., plano-convex with shallow depression at the disc, margin entire; surface yellowish to greyish yellow, smooth. Gills adnate to decurrent, white to yellowish white, crowded with numerous lamellulae. Stipe up to 55 × 12 mm, cylindrical, slightly tapering towards base, arising from a tuft of mycelium; surface white, smooth.

 

Culinary value:

Many species of Russula are edible. It is the most commonly consumed mushroom in Madagascar. However; there is a controversy in edibility of Russula. North American field guides list mostly non-edible species with a word of caution, while, European field guides list more edible species1. In West Bengal fruit body is cooked with mustard oil and spices[2]. Russula virescens is an edible mushroom with a delicious taste and it is also rich in proteins, phosphorus, calcium and many other compounds[3].

Medicinal importance:

  1. Antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activities of delica Fr. (RD) extracts were studied and the extracts were found to be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in the food industry[4].
  2. Pileus and stipe of griseocarnosa were analyzed separately for chemical composition and antioxidant activities. The species proved to have antioxidant properties[5].
  3. Russula virens has been used in traditional Chinese medicine from the ancient time for the treatment of liver disease, eye problems, and chest distress3.
  4. Lectins isolated from delica shown an inhibition towards HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Hence, lectins are potential drugs for treatment of AIDS[6].

Industrial importance:

  1. Laccase purified from virescens was found to decolorize different dye such as s Bromothymol Blue and Evans blue3. Thus, it can be further explored and applied to textile industry.
  2. Feruloyl esterase (FAE) was purified from virescens. It has a good thermal stability with a promising future as feed additives and in the production of pharmaceuticals[7].

Unique features:

Lack of information

Interesting facts:

Lack of information

Commercial products:

Lack of information

Review of patents:

  1. A preparation method for vinosa Lindbl. soup is invented. The preparation method is simple high in production efficiency, low in investment and high in income. It is economical and practical and has a positive effect to environmental protection. It also has wide market prospect, and also suitable for popularization and application[8]. The method was invented by Yang Yongqing and applicant was Luoyang Chunkui Agricultural Dev Co Ltd. The patent was granted by European Patent Office.
  2. The method for increased production of vinosa is provided. This has solved the problem of low yield, low quality and fetched high price. In the method, ectomycorrhizal fungi flora was used to increase the biomass of thin roots of arbor, to improve the fruiting capacity, yield and quality of wild Russula vinosa This has created remarkable economic benefits[9]. The inventors of this method were Yuhang Chen et.al. and the applicant was Edible Fungus Res Inst Fujian. The patent was granted by European Patent Office.
  3. The method of Russula cultivation was invented. The cultivation material involved sunflower by-products such as sunflower plates, stalks, sunflower seed shells and sunflower seed cakes as main raw materials and was supplemented with bran coat, a lime powder, a gypsum powder, calcium superphosphate and other auxiliary materials. The invention has also provided a preparing method of the cultivation material. The cultivation material has provided fineness and thickness, good mushroom material permeability and strong water holding capacity. The cultivation material also has balanced nutrition which resulted into good growth vigor and high yield of Russula. Thus, the cultivation material has not only provided a solution method for harmless treatment but has also found out a new matrix for Russula cultivation[10]. The inventor and applicant was Wu Jinmei and the patent was granted by European Patent Office.
  4. The method to increase the yield of Russula griseocarnosa was invented by adjusting mycorrhiza and fungus community structures[11]. The inventor were Chen Yuhang et. al. and The applicant was Institute of Edible Fungi, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The patent was granted by European Patent Office.

Review of publications:

  1. A new species, Russula griseocarnosa, which was popular as food and medicine and misidentified as European vinosa for a long time, was described from tropical China. The identification issue was resolved by molecular analysis, based on a combined ITS - nLSU-rDNA sequence data set[12].
  2. In the study, 126 wild mushrooms were collected from Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary of Sikkim are enlisted with their scientific names, common names, distribution, growing period and status of edibility. Out of these 126, 9 species are from Russula genus[13].
  3. Russula senecis, is a popular species among the tribal communities of West Bengal for food. The study was conducted to provide the reliable taxonomic identification of species through macro- and micro-morphological features, DNA barcoding, and confirmation of its systematic placement by phylogenetic analyses, myco-chemicals and functional activities[14].
  4. Three species, namely sharmae, R. dubdiana and R. sikkimensis were proposed as new taxa from West district of Sikkim (India), located in the Eastern Himalaya. The new species are provided with macro- and micromorphological illustrated descriptions with their taxonomic positions and relations to allied species[15].
  5. Russula sarnarii from Uttarakhand was described as a novel species. A species is provided with detailed morphological description, illustrations, color photographs and ITS-based phylogeny[16].

Links to more publications:

  1. http://www.mycosphere.org/pdf/Mycosphere_5_5_2.pdf
  2. http://www.scienceasia.org/2005.31.n4/v31_323_328.pdf
  3. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ja01863a013
  4. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268778972_Russula_rhodomelanea_and_the_question_of_Russula_emeticella

Classification1:

Kingdom: Fungi

Division: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Russulales

Family: Russulaceae

Genus: Russula

Related links:

  1. http://www.svims.ca/council/Russul.htm
  2. https://steemit.com/nature/@valth/how-to-identify-edible-russula-mushrooms
  3. http://www.mushroomexpert.com/russula.html
  4. https://blog.mycology.cornell.edu/2013/12/30/a-deadly-russula/

 

 

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russula

[2] Dutta Ak, Acharya K (2014) Traditional and Ethno-medicinal knowledge of mushrooms in West Bengal, India. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 7 (4)

[3] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964830513000681

[4]https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nazime_MERCAN_DOGAN/publication/277769293_Antioxidant_and_Antimicrobial_Activity_of_Russula_delica_Fr_An_Edidle_Wild_Mushroom/links/55796d1208ae75363756794e.pdf

[5] http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf1011775

[6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3016214/

[7] https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12010-013-0536-0

[8] http://www.google.com.pg/patents/CN103126012A?cl=en

[9] http://www.google.com.pg/patents/CN101690454A?cl=en

[10] https://www.google.com/patents/CN103601596A?cl=en

[11] http://www.google.sr/patents/CN104106376A?cl=en

[12] http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/novh/2009/00000088/f0020001/art00027

[13]https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kanad_Das3/publication/264886696_Diversity_and_conservation_of_wild_mushrooms_in_Sikkim_with_special_reference_to_Barsey_Rhododendron_Sanctuary/links/54ec4d6c0cf28f3e65326bd4.pdf

[14] https://peerj.com/articles/810.pdf

[15] http://www.mycosphere.org/pdf/MC4_4_No9.pdf

[16]https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316237390_Russula_sarnarii_sp_nov_Russulaceae_Basidiomycota_from_Indian_Himalaya

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