Tremella Pers.

 

Tremella species are mostly growing as a parasite on wood rotting fungi of the Phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota or particularly on species which are growing on dead branches. The genus is distributed worldwide; however, some species may have restricted distribution[1].

The specimen was collected from Karnala Bird Sanctuary.

 

Morphology:

 

Fruit bodies gelatinous, sessile, dorsally attached with the substratum, 10–70 × 10–40 mm diam., petaloid to hemispherical; surface smooth, yellowish to orange colour. Hymenium concolorous with the dorsal side, without foldes, smooth. 

 

Culinary value:

 

  1. 1. Tremella mesentrica which is called as witch's butter is eaten only after boiling or steaming[2].
  2. 2.Tremella fuciformis though tasteless is used as a sweet dish in Chinese cuisine. It is used to make dessert soup and as an ingredient in drink and ice cream. It is valued because of its gelatinous texture and medicinal properties1.
  3. 3.Tremella aurantialba is commercially cultivated for its edibility[3].

 

Medicinal importance:

 

  1. 1.Tremella fuciformis is used as a traditional Chinese medicine. According to them it nourishes the lung, stomach and kidney, strengthens the bones, helps in maintaining the weight and provides proper moisturization to the skin which belongs to the lung network. Tremella also contains rich dietary fibers (>70%) including healthy polysaccharides and Vitamin D, and modern research indicates that it is useful as an anti-tumor agent, in lowering blood glucose, lowering cholesterol, and protecting against radiation as well[4].
  2. 2.Tremella extracts are applicable in treatment of neurodermatitis and sclerodermatitis. They also contain a hydrophilic agent- polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) with anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties largely used in cosmetology[5].

 

Industrial importance:

 

Tremella fuciformis is non-toxic in nature and a natural alternative to sodium hyaluronate.  It is used in renowned brands like P&G’s SK-II Skin Care Products and Kanebo and La Prairie’s Advanced Marine Biology Night Solution[6].

 

Unique features:

 

Lack of information

 

Interesting facts:

 

Tremella was classified as algae by Linnaeus, because of its gelatinous nature. Persoon finally revised and added it to fungi1.

 

Commercial products:

 

  1. 1.La Prairie Advanced Marine Biology Night Solution, Switzerland
  2. 2.BeautyDiy Aqua Circulation Hydrating Gel, Taiwan, 3. Surkran Grape Seed Lift Eye Mask, U.S6,[7].
  3. 3.P&G’s SK-II Skin Care Products[8].

 

Review of patents:

 

  1. 1.New and distinct varieties of Coprinus and Tremella were deposited. The extracts from these new strains comprises various biologically active compounds and these can be used as human and animal dietary supplements, prebiotics, cosmeceuticals, and in the therapy of several diseases and conditions, as well as anti- phytoviral agents[9].
  2. 2.The polysaccharides were isolated from a hot water extract of Tremella without adding a chemical reagent. It has shown inhibitory action towards melanin formation and hence can be used to lighten the skin spots. In addition, Tremella polysaccharide has excellent moisturizing effect[10].
  3. 3.The polysaccharide isolated from a hot water extract of a Tremella without adding a chemical reagent has a novel effect of preventing and/or treating intestinal disorder. Polysaccharide has excellent stability, water absorbing and holding ability, and swelling capacity, so it can be used to raise fecal water content and increase fecal volume, so as to improve intestinal disorder characterized by constipation and symptom caused by constipation[11].

 

Review of publications:

 

  1. 1.Polysaccharides obtained from Tremella species have their applications in medicine to enhance the immune system5.
  2. 2.New species of lichenicolous Tremellales and Filobasidiales on the diversity (T. rhizocarpicola) and geographical distribution (T.pertusariae and T. protoparmeliae) in the Nordic countries were described. Tremella rinodinae and T. caloplacae were described as new to Sweden and Norway, respectively. Along with these, six species of Tremella were reported as new to Swedish provinces[12].
  3. 3.New records of the heterobasidioid fungi Dacrymyces ovisporus and T. diaporthicola were reported from Europe. The species were described in detail along with illustrations of specimens[13].
  4. 4.Neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of T. fuciformis were examined. The results suggested T. fuciformis as potential precautionary agent in neurodegenerative diseases[14].

 

Links to more publications:

 

  1. 1.http://www.insa.nic.in/writereaddata/UpLoadedFiles/IJHS/Vol50_2015_2_Art11.pdf;
  2. 2.https://mushroomcompany.com/articles/0005/tremella.pdf

 

Classification1:

 

Kingdom:

Fungi

Division:

Basidiomycota

Class:

Tremellomycetes

Order:

Tremellales

Family:

Tremellaceae

Genus:

Tremella

   

 

Related links:

 

  1. 1.http://foreverhealthy.blogspot.in/2012/04/tremella-ancient-mushroom-for-beauty.html
  2. 2.http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/oct2000.html
  3. 3.http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/jan2006.html
  4. 4.http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/species_index.html#1_19
  5. 5.http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/Names.asp
  6. 6.https://www.google.co.in/search?q=Tremella+site:www.mushroomexpert.com&hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&filter=0&gws_rd=cr&ei=VXYRWb6OKceJvQSzjKHwCQ

 

 

 

 

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tremella

[2] http://www.ediblewildfood.com/blog/2012/10/witchs-butter-edible-fungi/

[3] https://sayedmaulana.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/mushrooms.pdf

[4] http://bioupdate.org/tremella/2006-08-19-tremella-mushrooms-tremella-fuciformis/

[5] De Baets S, Vandamme EJ (2001) Extracellular Tremella polysaccharides: Structure, properties and applications. Biotechnology Letters, 23: 1361–1366

[6] https://www.truthinaging.com/review/tremella-a-natural-alternative-to-sodium-hyaluronate

[7] Wu Y, Choi M-H, Li J, Yang H, Shin H-J (2016) Mushroom Cosmetics: The present and future. Cosmetics, 3 (22)

[8] http://www.pg.com/en_US/brands/global_beauty/skii.shtml

[9] https://www.google.ch/patents/WO2010103519A1?cl=en

[10] https://www.google.com/patents/US20060222608

[11] https://www.google.com/patents/US20080293670

[12] Millanes AM, Diederich P, Westberg M, Knutsson T, Wedin M (2014) Tremella rhizocarpicola sp. nov. and other interesting lichenicolous Tremellales and Filobasidiales in the Nordic countries. MycoKeys, 8: 31–41

[13] Malysheva VF, Akulov AY (2011) New records of Dacrymyces ovisporus and Tremella diaporthicola from the Ukraine. Czech Mycology, 63(2): 189–194

[14] Park KJ, Lee S-Y, Kim H-S, Yamazaki M, Chiba K, Ha H-C (2007) The neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of Tremella fuciformis in PC12h cells. Mycobiology, 35(1): 11-15

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