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Plant Name        Garuga pinnata              

                Common name: Garuga               

                Marathi:              Kakad/ Kakodshi            

                Hindi:                   Kharpat               

                English:                 Garuga               

                Jawhar:                Kakad/ Kakhodshi           


Identification guide


Garuga is a deciduous tree growing up to 18 metres tall, with bark pealing off in flakes.

The tree is cultivated in home gardens in India for its edible fruit and also as a support for Piper nigrum


imparipinnate, long, 13-21 leaflets


small, yellow, branched axillary tomentose panicles,several together at ends of the branches .


round, fleshy, size of a gooseberry, green when mature and turns yellow- blackish when ripe .


Habit / Habitat

Deciduous tree                


Indo- Malaysia 


Edible parts

Used by tribal community in Jawhar:      Fruits


Method of consumption

Jawhar tribal           Fruits are eaten raw

Other Recipe           Pickle recipe


  1. Kakad: 1 kg
  2. Fenugreek seeds: 12 gm
  3. Mustard seeds: 70 gm
  4. Red chilli powder: 40gm
  5. Salt : 150 gm
  6. Asafoetida: 30gm
  7. Oil : 250 ml
  8. Turmeric powder: 20gm
  9. Coarsely grinded cloves, black pepper, fennel seeds: 20gm


Medicinal use

Bark extact on eye infection


Nutritional and medicinal information

Pharmaceutical significance

Literature review:

  1. A study conducted by Thupurani. et al, 2012, determined the anti-oxidant properties of G.pinnata which concluded that the stem bark showed highest scavenging activity followed by the leaf and fruit.
  2. A study conducted on the chloroform extract of the leaves of G.pinnata showed good anti-microbial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungus A.niger.
  3. A study conducted by Khatun et al, 2011, concluded that 9´-Desmethylgaruganin I, isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the stem bark of Garuga pinnata Roxb, showed moderate inhibitory activity to microbial growth and weak cytoxicity.
  4. G. pinnata is widely used in the treatment of cancer, stomach problems, diabetes mellitus, asthma, obesity, splenomegaly, pulmonary infections, to cure opacities of the conjunctiva and to promote healing of wounds, bone fractures etc.


Propagation and Storage

 Season of collection


How to grow it?

They are cultivated for fruits. Seeds are or root cuttings are used for propagation.

Method of storage

1) Propagules:

2) Edibles: Fruits and perishable and eaten within 2-3 days of harvest. They could be dried and stored in jars in the form of pickle or jam.


Other uses

The tribes of Bangladesh use leaf juice as astringent; fruits to cure diarrhoea; Stem juice to cure conjunctiva and root decoction to treat pulmonary1.



Kingdom:            Plantae

Division:              Spermatophyta

Sub-division:     Angiospermae

Class:                    Dicotyledonae

Sub-class:            Polypetalae

Series:                  Disciflorae

Order:                   Geraninales

Family:                  Burseraceae

Genus:                  Garuga

Species:               pinnata





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