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Plant Name: Basella alba

 

Common name:

Marathi:              Mayallu

Hindi:                   Poi

English:                Malabar spinach, Indian spinach

Jawhar:                Mayalu

 

Interesting facts and history

Some special property: Like spinach, Basella alba also contain oxalic acid which is a naturally occurring substance found in some vegetables. Thus, people prone to oxalate urinary tract stones are recommended to avoid eating them1.

 

Identification guide

General

Basella alba is a short-lived, perennial climbing plant, producing stems up to 9 metres long that scramble over the ground and twine into other plants for support

Stems

It has a deep-red - purple colour stems.

Leaves

They are broad, deep green, thick and glossy and succulent.

Flowers

The colour of the flowers varies from species to species. It differs from white or white-pink.

Fruits

The fruits are in the form of berries. They are deep-purple to black in colour.

 

Habit / Habitat

It is a perennial twinning herb1.

The plant thrives in hot humid climate. It requires moist, fertile and well-drained soil and is often cultivated in pots or in kitchen garden.

 

Occurrence

1) Basella alba is a fast-growing vine and found throughout India and native to tropical Southern Asia.

2) Location of photograph: The plant sample was photographed at Chambharshet village, Jawhar

 

Edible parts

World wide use

Tender leaves and stem

Used by tribal community in Jawhar

leaves and stem

Non Edible parts

Fruits: The juice of purple berries has colorant properties due to presence of betacyanin pigments. Thus, the intense purple colour obtained from the ripped fruits is used as dye and also as a natural food colorant14.

 

Method of consumption

Jawhar tribal

The tender leaves and stems are cooked with other leafy vegetables or added to dals/ curry (lentils).

Other Recipe

Mangalorean malabar spinach curry recipe

Main ingredients

  1. ¾ cup black eyed beans/lobia/chawli
  2. 1 to 1.5 cup chopped malabar spinach leaves and stems (mayalu or valchi bhaji or pui shaak)
  3. ¾ cup to 1 cup fresh grated coconut/nariyal
  4. 1 tbsp oil
  5. 1 small onion/pyaaz
  6. 1 medium tomato/tamatar
  7. 3 to 4 garlic/lahsun
  8. 1 tsp mustard seeds/rai
  9. a pinch of asafoetida/hing
  10. salt as required
  11. For dry roasting the spices
  12. 3 tsp coriander seeds/sabut dhania
  13. 2 tsp cumin/sabut jeera
  14. 3-4 black peppercorns/sabut kali mirch
  15. ¼ tsp fenugreek seeds/methi dana
  16. 2 to 3 dry red chilies/sookhi lal mirch

 

Instructions

  1. Rinse and soak the black eyed beans or chawli/lobia in enough water overnight or for 5 to 6 hours.
  2. Drain them and pressure cook the black eyed beans in 2 or 2.5 cups water along with salt, till they are cooked well and softened. They should not become mushy.
  3. Heat a small skillet or pan. Add all the whole spices and on a low heat dry roast them till aromatic.
  4. When the spices cool, add them to a grinder long with grated coconut.
  5. Add some water and make a smooth paste of the roasted spices with the coconut.
  6. Keep the coconut-spices paste aside.
  7. Lightly crush garlic in a mortar-pestle keeping the peels on it. Just crushing them lightly, not making a paste of them.
  8. Finely chop the onions and dice the tomatoes.
  9. Rinse and remove the leaves from the stems of the Malabar spinach. Small leaves can be kept intact. Large leaves can be chopped.
  10. Cut the tender stems in 1 or 1.5 inch pieces. If the stems are not tender, you will have cook them separately in water in a pan or pressure cooker, till they are cooked well.
  11. Heat oil in a pan. Crackle the mustard first.
  12. Then add the crushed garlic with their peels. saute for 4-5 seconds
  13. Add onions and saute till translucent. add the tomatoes and coconut spice paste
  14. Stir and saute for 2 to 3 minutes.
  15. Add the malabar spinach leaves and stems.
  16. Stir and add 1 to 1.5 cups stock or water. Season with salt and stir again.
  17. Simmer the curry for 6-7 minutes on a low to medium flame.
  18. Add the cooked black eyed beans and simmer for 6-7 minutes or more, till all the flavors are well blended. You will see specks of oil on top of the curry when it’s done.
  19. Add water if required if the curry looks thick and continue to simmer.
  20. The curry is neither thick nor thin, but of medium consistency.
  21. Lastly, garnish the curry with chopped coriander leaves if you prefer.
  22. Serve the Malabar spinach curry hot with steamed rice and chapattis.

 

Medicinal use

Literature review

Cooked roots are used in the treatment of diarrhoea. The leaf juice is used in cases of dysentery. The juice also has diuretic, febrifuge (reduce fever) and laxative properties.

Traditionally in West Cameroon region, this plant has been used as a medicine on male reproductive functioning and to treat male infertility. This was proved by an experimental study carried out on male rats showed which showed that methanol extracts of Basella alba stimulate the testosterone production in testicular fraction and could have an effect to contribute to the improvement of the male reproductive function .

A study carried out by Bamidele, O, et al; in Nigeria, showed that the internal consumption of the leaves of the plant could significantly have a positive effect on haematological parameters like red blood cell count, white blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and platelet count .

Leaf extract was used to investigate the effects of the plant on reducing the excess level of cholesterol in the blood stream (hypercholesterolaemia) which leads to atherosclerosis (disease caused due to deposition of fatty material on the inner walls). The study thus designed by Baskaran, G et al, in Malaysia, suggests that the plant has the potential as an alternative therapeutic agent to treat the disease.

 

Nutritional and medicinal information

Literature review: The young stem and leaves are incredibly rich sources of vitamin A and C. They are also a good source of calcium and iron and contain essential amino acids. The greens are cooked with other popular leafy vegetables to prepare different curries and “sags”.

 

Nutrition Facts of cooked Malabar spinach per 100 g

Sr. No.                  Parameters                        Amount                               % Daily Value*

1                              Total Fat                               0.8 g                                       1%

2                              Cholesterol                                                                         0%

3                              Sodium                                 55 mg                                    2%

4                              Potassium                           256 g                                      7%

5                              Total Carbohydrate         2.7 g                                       1%

6                              Dietary fiber                       2.1g                                        8%

7                              Protein                                 3 g                                          6%

8                              Vitamin A                            1158 IU                                 23%

9                              Vitamin C                             5.9mg                                    10%

1                              Folate                                   114mg                                   29%

11                           Vitamin B-6                         0.1mg                                    4%

12                           Riboflavin                            0.1mg                                    8%

13                           Calcium                                                124mg                                   12%

14                           Iron                                        1.5mg                                    8%

15                           Magnesium                        48 mg                                    12%

 

Harvesting and preserving

A vigorous, fast-growing plant, when established it can be harvested every week or so by removing young shoots 7 - 13cm long. In addition to keeping the plant within bounds, this encourages the production of side shoots and thus more stems to harvest.

 

Propagation and Storage

Season of collection

It is a perennial plant. Leaves could be harvested within 50-70 days after planting the seeds.

 

How to grow it?

Malabar spinach could be easily grown as a pot herb or cultivated in the home gardens. Seeds could be directly sown for planting, although a stem cutting of about 20 cm in length is used as an easy method of propagation.

In temperate conditions seeds are sown in the month of March until mid-June.

Method of storage

1) Propagules: Seeds are directly stored whereas, stem cuttings cannot be stored, hence propagated garden-fresh.

2) Edible parts: Leaves could be stored in the refrigerators. Although they should be eaten fresh to get the maximum nutritional benefits.

 

Other uses

Global Uses

In China, Malabar spinach is known as ‘huang ti cai’ which translates into ‘Emperor’s vegetable’, hence widely eaten as a delicacy.

Extract of leaves in the form of juice is used to treat nose and throat inflammation in Nepal3.

In Africa, tender leaves are used as a laxative, and the juice of red fruit is used as eye-drops to treat conjunctivitis.

 

Classification:

Kingdom:            Plantae

Division:              Spermatophyta

Sub-division:     Angiospermae

Class:                    Dicotyledonae

Sub-class:            Apetalae

Series:                  Curvembryae

Family:                 Chenopodiaceae

Genus:                 Basella

Species:               alba

 

References

 

  1. http://www.japsonline.com/admin/php/uploads/1174_pdf.pdf
  2. http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/mangalorean-malabar-spinach-curry-recipe/
  3. http://www.specialtyproduce.com/produce/Malabar_Spinach_8956.php
  4. http://database.prota.org/PROTAhtml/Basella%20alba_En.htm
  5. http://examine.com/supplements/basella-alba/
  6. http://homeguides.sfgate.com/plant-basella-alba-21998.html
  7. http://www.vegetablenutrition.in/2014/03/Basella.html
  8. http://www.bbg.org/gardening/article/red-stemmed_malabar_spinach
  9. http://www.survivalfoodplants.com/malabar-indian-spinach-basella-alba/
  10. http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/3049/2
  11. http://medicinalplants.us/basella-alba
  12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039958/
  13. http://search.proquest.com/openview/f85d88b3d76622ea3174b50d73bb2742/1?pq-origsite=gscholar
  14. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/751714/abs/
  15. http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Basella+alba

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