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Plant Name            Dioscorea wallichii Hook.f

 

                Common name:  

                English:                Kruo, Kadat

                Marathi:               Dehagadi, Konchi               

                Hindi :                  Jugur kanda             

                Known in Jawhar Taluka: Konchi

               

                               

Interesting facts and history

A yam from Southeast Asia, India and China, Dioscorea wallichii has edible tubers that can grow to over one metre long.

Dioscorea wallichii was named by Joseph D. Hooker (1817-1911) in honour of Nathaniel Wallich (1786-1854), a surgeon and botanist who was involved in the development of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta.

It is larval host plant of the following butterflies: Spindasis vulcanus, Tagiades gana, Tagiades litigiosa.

 

               

Identification guide

 

Stem

twining to the right, smooth or scarcely prickly towards the base

 

Leaves

to 12 x 12 cm, orbicular, bluntly acuminate, widely cordate at base; nerves 12 pairs from the base, glabrous, intercostae parallel; petiole to 14 cm long. Spikes 7-10 cm long, 3-6 together at nodes on 30-40 cm long peduncle; bracts and bracteoles ovate, acuminate. Male tepals 1 x 1 mm, ovate, acute; stamens 6

 

Tubers   

palmately branched, cylindric. Round capsules contain flat, brown seeds, each with a thin, marginal wing.

 

Flowers

It has separate male and female plants. The female inflorescences (flowering structures) hang down from the vine, each one containing up to 20 flowers. Female flowers: perianth lobes fleshy, outer ones ovate, inner ones broadly ovate. Capsule (immature) not reflexed, drying blackish, oblate, 2-2.7 cm, glabrous, base truncate, apex emarginate to truncate; wings 1.7-2 cm wide.

 

Seeds

inserted near middle of capsule in the flower, winged all round

                               

Habit / Habitat

It is a climber and grows on various large shrubs or trees in mixed deciduous and evergreen forests, on mountain slopes, also occurs in disturbed areas along roadsides and margins of cultivated areas             

 

 

Occurrence

1) Availability of the plant species in India

1) Global distribution: India and Peninsula Malaysia (China, Assam, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand)

  1. In India: Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa.

               

                               

Edible parts          

Worldwide                            Tubers

 

Jawhar tribal area                Tender leaves and shoots

 

 

Method of consumption

 

Tribal recipe

Tender leaves and shoots are boiled and cooked with local masalas.

 

Other world wise recipes 

Tubers are edible when boiled after peeling.

In India, juice extracted from the tubers is drunk to treat jaundice

                               

                               

Nutritional and medicinal information

 

Proximate Analysis of tubers of D. wallichii is as follows (gm/100gm):

Moisture= 76.36±0.27

Crude Protein= 10.76±0.18

Crude Lipid= 3.34±0.04

Crude Fibre= 7.48±0.13

Calorific value= 1509.01 KJ100/gm DM

 

Mineral Analysis of tubers of D. wallichii is as follows Mineral Value (mg/100gm):

Sodium = 63.01±0.27

Potassium= 1361±1.01

Calcium= 748.31±0.32

Magnesium=578.06±0.19

Phosphorous= 106.40±0.11

Zinc= 6.66±0.01

Manganese= 3.31±0.05

Iron= 20.14±0.04

Copper= 2.46±0.08

 

 

 

Pharmaceutical significance

  1. The leaf extract of D. wallichii exhibited anti-bacterial properties when synthesized with silver nanoparticles. The zone of inhibition was observed against Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Silver nano-particles are the metal choice as they are hold and kill microbe’s effectively . "

                               

Harvesting and preserving

They are being uprooted from the fields.      

Tubers can be stored for 4-5 months.

               

Propagation and Storage

Season of collection

 

Flowering and fruiting: October-November

 

How to grow it?

By sowing tubers.

Method of storage

Propagules: Tubers

               

                               

Other uses           

It has been described more as a famine food used in times of food shortage because the tubers are hard to extract and less desirable than those of other Dioscorea species.   

 

                               

Classification

Kingdom:               Plantae

Division:                 Spermatophyta

Sub-division:         Angiospermae

Class:                      Monocotyledonae

Series:                    Epigynae

Family:                   Dioscoreaceae

Genus :                  Dioscorea

Species :                  wallichii                

 

 

References

 

1 http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/165731/0

2 http://e-monocot.org/taxon/urn:kew.org:wcs:taxon:241143

3 http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/dioscorea-wallichii-kruo

4 http://botatropasia.sciencesconf.org/76565/document

5 http://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/larval-host-plants/153/Dioscorea-wallichii

 

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